(an update about all this) (...follow the white rabbit)
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“The novel is defective in construction. The way in which this novel is told is not perfect; there are loose ends in adapting a story originally written to be read in manga format into a novel format.” Kyoko Mizuki, about her work -Candy Candy Final Story-
~ o ~
Indeed, the novel is defective by nature; the biggest challenge I’ve found wasn't the plot holes, I can ignore the anachronisms or even the loose ends (and fill-up those with extracts from the manga), the hardest part for me was to follow the two narrators- Candy herself narrating and giving first hand flashbacks and a general narrator - perhaps Mizuki herself, in third person, which has a bird’s eye view over the story and points-out the views of other characters) in some specifics chapters -Section I & and Section II- they appear simultaneously, we can hear both voices guiding the action one immediately after the other one, - Candy narrating in first person (page 11) “The incident that changed my life. The day Annie was adopted by the Brightons ... Time spins very fast. I closed my eyes ...” (break - page 12 is blank) To continue in the following (page-14) “...Candy, coming down of the Pony’s Hill at a dizzying speed” - narrated in third person.
- Candice White is a fictional character created by Kyoko Mizuki - in her adolescence, 12 year old, Keiko Nagita, creates the "imaginary family Ardlay (or Ardrey/Andrew/Adore) " to relieve her loneliness and to help her heal from her father’s death. She kept the stories on a notebook, in 1975, Nagita - now using the pseudonym “Kyoko Mizuki”, writes the manuscript “Candy Candy” - never published as such - but instead it is used as reference to create a Shojo Manga work under the same title (with illustration & collaboration from the artist Yumiko Igarashi), the work is an instant hit and more projects derived from her original idea followed. Below is a list of the most relevant materials where the heroine, Candice White appeared;
- (1961?) Notebooks about the Ardlay family (never published - On Nagita’s possession)
- 1975 “Candy Candy” - prose manuscript by Nagita (never published as such, but used for the manga’s storyline)
- 1975 – 1979 Candy Candy (print Manga/comic) Ed. Nakayoshi 9 Volumes (with Igarashi)
- 1976- Illus & Poems - Artworks books 1 & 2 - print (with Igarashi)
- 1976–1979 Candy Candy (TV Series, studio Toei Animation) 115 episodes (with Igarashi)
- 1978-1979 Candy Candy: The Novel (print publication) ed Kodansha - 3 books (some illustrations from Igarashi)
- 1978 Candy Candy: The Call of Spring/The May Festival Anime film (movie) (with Igarashi)
- 1978 Candy Candy's Summer Vacation Anime film (movie) (with Igarashi)
(1980-1997 re-run and re-publishing of the previous works above)
(1998 - 2009 - Years of inactivity - due to the legal dispute between Mizuki & the artist Igarashi, over Candy Candy’s copyright)
- 2010 Mizuki publishes yet the latest novel in the series; “Candy Candy FINAL STORY” - (print publication) 2 books ed. Shodensha, the text is based on her notebook (never published) and a revised and extended work from the 1978 “Candy Candy; the novel”. The new paperback doesn’t contain any illustrations/artwork from Igarashi - but more relevant yet, is the fact that Candice White is finally happy, living with “Anohito”, the man she loves.
About the Japanese term “Anohito (HE/ that person)” .- The first public reference we have to this term appeared in the
- These three candy's dialogue are from two different scenes in the manga:
- (the first two) is when she meets Albert injured in the hospital, so she is talking to herself about him, she uses あの人は (Ano hito wa/that person) then その人は (Sono hito wa/that man) and その人は (Sono hito wa/that man) again
- (the last one) she is referring to Albert meanwhile talking to Terry in her visit to N.Y. This last one is written exactly in the same way as the famous "あの人" (from the Candy Candy Final Story novel) あの人 (ano hito/that person) - (with the hiragana characters ひと besides the kanji 人)
There are other poems where Mizuki writes あ の ひ と (pronounce ano hito) instead of あ の 人 (ano hito / esa persona), which meaning does this あ の ひ と (hiragana script) probably also “who”
(written in Japanese Kanji)
Romanji o furigana
(cómo suena el poema en japonés)
あしたがすき ( 歌詞:名木田 恵子)
キャンディ キャンディ キャンディ
キャンディ キャンディ キャンディ
キャンディ キャンディ キャンディ
ga suki ( kashi : mei kida keiko )
ashita ha doko kara umare te kuru no
watashi ha ashita ga ashita ga suki
suteki na koto ga ari sou de
watashi ha ashita ga ashita ga suki
kirakira hikaru kaze no muko u de
ano hito ga watashi o watashi o yon de iru
kyandi kyandi kyandi
ashita no koto o yume ni miru no
watashi ha ashita ga ashita ga suki
yasashii hito ni ai sou de
watashi ha ashita ga ashita ga suki
midori ga yureru o kano ue de
ano hito ga watashi o watashi o matte iru
kyandi kyandi kyandi
midori ga yureru o kano ue de
ano hito ga watashi o watashi o matte iru
kyandi kyandi kyandi
(written in Japanese Kanji)
Romanji o furigana
(cómo suena el poema en japonés)
森で ふいに だれかに後ろから
このまま ずっと わからないふりを
Mori de fui ni dare ka ni ushiro kara dakisukumerare ta no
... dare da?
chotto kidotta koe ga shi te ---
atashi sugu ni
ano hito (teryi) da to
wakara nai furi o shi ta no
me no mae o karakau yō ni
risu ga hashitte itta wa mune
no naka de funsui ga fukiagaru
kono mama zutto wakara nai furi o shi te iyo u kashira.....
Regarding this a native Japanese have told us the following; “We Japanese use this word "あのひと" when we describe someone who is our superior (an example). In my opinion "ano hito" include respect meaning. If we call lover who is same age, we usually call his name or nickname or "あいつaitu". Terry is wild boy. "あのひと" is unbecoming for Terry. To add あの人’s meaning is "that person" just little bit distant. But "あのひと" is used in very close relationship.”
Yet in the manga and in the Candy Candy Final Story Mizuki goes into write “あの人”; - the most formal most respectful form of writing. Why she chooses this option I do not know, but what it is clear is that Mizuki knows when she wants to use あの人 or あのひと. Conclusion we should leave the Japanese language to the Japanese people
The following work was written in 2011. Many things have changed since them, specially my perspective about the series Candy Candy - it is too long and complex to explain here, right now, but overall I have to say I do not longer think that Candy Candy tells the story of an orphan living in USA or in Europe, but to me it is in reality a metaphor about a Japanese taboo (we're currently working on a very long and detailed article, hopefully it will be released this summer).
Therefore, if you also believe that Candy Candy has more to do with Japan than with USA, then I will recommend you to waiting.In the other hand if you think that Candy Candy is about Scottish, roses and Shakespeare ... then go ahead, perhaps this old job will help you understand the story a bit better. Good Luck!
======================== WARNING ========================
The following analysis contains SPOILERS, if you wish to read the novel “Candy Candy Final Story” and discover the TWIST plots by yourself, I strongly advise you to refrain from reading this article furthermore.
~ o ~
"This world is made up of so many twists and tangled wires, that we never know if we have good or bad luck until we unveil all the plots” Candy quoting Miss Pony (CCFS - B1/p 71)
~ o ~
Perhaps, this is for me the best way to describe how a reader should understand the novel; everything - the timeline & the narrative- have been tangled by Mizuki, luckily for us, she has also written enough clues to resolve this narrative-logic-puzzle. Do you want to know who is anohito? Then you have to play by Mizuki’s rules (and you are better-off if you like puzzles) "It was always like playing with wire puzzles, I had learned a lot from you doctor. Now that I’m back at Pony’s Home, those proved to be very useful." (B2/pp 246-248). Now all we have to do is to read and to follow Mizuki’s instructions to resolve the mystery.
NB. In this guide I will try to keep within the content of the (2010) novel Candy Candy Final Story (in short CCFS), however there might be some reference to the (1975) Manga, the (1976) TV Anime or the (1978) novel Candy Candy. I don’t own a copy of the 2010 new novel CCFS - but a close collaborator of this article read, checked & reviewed every quote with the original novel, nevertheless some dates, years or seasons should be taken by approximation.
1. Novel’s structure and reading exercises
So, first things, first - how do you read the novel?
- The only right possible way is, as Mizuki designed and published it, from page 1 till 349 (book 1) and then from page 1 till page 338 (book 2). This might sound obvious, but with so many loose translations, it is easy for any reader to get lost and complicate the novel’s drama even more. If you are about to read translations (first try to put them in its proper order) not only because this is how Mizuki decides to tell the plot, but furthermore, because she is going to train you in the art of deducting the story’s end. It is something like going to college; you won’t have an introductory course to your major’s in the last year and no one is asked to publish their research paper as a freshman.
In the same way, as a reader you are going to get a lot of information, often in an unorthodox way, this is also going to require memory and concentration by your side (only this way you’ll be able to assimilate & to follow without losing track of the plot). Do not sweat! Mizuki is going to train you; gradually, almost imperceptibly; she will complicate the reading as you move along the pages, meanwhile she also manipulates you, teaching you new tricks in such a subtle way that you’ll barely notice them. Thus, I emphasized, for the novel to make any sense and to give us the only right solution, we must first comply with Mizuki’s instruction; read as she has designed the novel.
- Is an introduction to the novel’s rhythm & feel, not only sets the nostalgic mood of the book, but it also introduces two of the three time scenarios the novel has- the present day and the past events.
- Candy narrates in first person & we also find the first letters of the novel, from Sister Maria & Miss Pony to Candy (B-1/pp. 3-12) plus the reply (heading of the letter) that Candy herself is writing.
Section I & Section II share the same construction between them, but, they are a bit more complex in comparison to the Prologue;
- We are going to dive in the action directly with the third time scenario - the flashbacks - as we are going to experience present, future & past actions - as well as retrospectives, by other characters (sister Maria, Terry, Anthony) in this way we can also hear secondary characters direct thoughts and feelings.
- At least in two occasions, we encounter two different narrators - Candy in first person at present day, talks directly, thinking, remembering or even having some live flashbacks. But the vast majority of these sections are narrated in third person by a second narrator (I tend to think is Mizuki filling in).
- Except for those exceptional flashbacks, the years in these sections are in chronological order, from past (1904) to present of 1913, moment Candy abandons the School in London.
- In section I, we also find the next letters of the novel; Annie to Candy (B1/pp. 41-42), Candy's note to Albert (it is a message in a bottle. (B1/p. 159)) a short note from Sir William informing Aunt Elroy about Candy’s adoption (B1/p. 193) and finally the letter she writes to the Cornwell brothers (B-1/pp. 227-228) after Anthony’s death.
- In section II we have the Cornwell brother’s letter to Candy waiting for her to arrive in London (B1/pp/ 238-239). On Sir William's behalf- letter from George to Candy, inviting her to go to Scotland (B2/p 58-59). Letter that Albert sends to Candy from Kenya (B2/pp 96- 97). Note from Terry “to whom it may concern” instructing to give a letter from him to Candy and then the letter itself, where he writes he is leaving London & the school, because there is something he wants to do in America (B2pp134-135).
- Apart from the letters, section II also have several inserts from Candy’s diary (that eventually will end up in Uncle William hands); January 10 days after she enrolled at St. Paul B1/pp 272-273. The arrival of Annie at St. Paul B1/p. 303. Meeting Albert at the night streets of London B1./pp 311-313. April, the upcoming May Festival, also the first time she writes about Terry on her diary, she gives him the initials T.G. (B1/p339-341). May, she thinks about Terry a lot and how he reminds him of Anthony B2/p33. September: end of Summer School (in Scotland) she practiced piano with Terry. B2/p95. Last entry on her diary doesn’t have a dated, but she writes how she wanted to say out loud that she loves Terry. B2/p143
Section III, In this part (at least in 10 occasions) we’ll have the opportunity to see Candy in the actual present time.
- Therefore, flashbacks in this section are often than before, we are going to be swapping with Candy between her present in real time and the present of past events.
- Candy is again the sole narrator, helped by a treasure box where she has saved letters, clippings and other memorabilia, she looks with nostalgia at the critical moments of her past, and remembers loved ones who are no longer with her.
- Also new in this section is that we stop reading narrative format to read an epistolary novel, and although, Candy is the main voice narrating, we are also going to read a few letters written first hand by secondary characters (George, Patty, Annie, Archie, Susanna & Terry).
- To complicate things further more Mizuki, hides and spread clues over the three time escenarios (present, past and flashback) following the story requires a greater degree of concentration, and now the reader has to stop being passive or a mere spectator to get involved, retaining, analyzing, and remembering (Mizuki is going to force you to have your own flashbacks about things you’ve already read "I see, that was before, I’ve read this is somewhere else").
- Also, the letters we read in this section does not follow a chronological order, instead they are organized in theme groups- e.g. St. Joanna’s Hospital, Miami’s hotel party or Hamlet’s play (it could be that this is not so obvious at first, but it will be definitely more clear once we read the last section of the novel).
The Epilogue, might feel somehow similar to Section III, as it is also written in epistolary form, but there are huge differences between these two;
- We are not going to see Candy in present day until the very last page, so, in this section; there is no “narrator” as such, only letters.
- At first it might feel that we are yet in another reconstruction, but in reality Candy is stuck in a time-loop, we return again to a present in the past that we had already analyzed in Section III (we know because Mizuki is going to give us “anchors” to cross-reference this part with the section III - and at times the epilogue will fell like a huge Déjà vu).
- Also these are not loose letters, but a long well chronologically organized correspondence/conversation between Candy and Albert - in contrast with the previous part, and as a matter of fact, the epilogue is going to guide us and help us to put section III in its right chronological order.
- But perhaps, the biggest difference is that Albert is not a mere secondary character as before, he gains leadership as he writes & narrates, he guide us in first person, bringing his own flashbacks to the novel. This is extremely out of balance against Terry, as Mizuki makes Albert together with Candy the main character of the section, just before Candy comes back to her present day and runs into the warm arms of Anohito.
..and then, something even more amazing is about to happen, just when you read the last word of the last page of the novel - and if you have been paying good attention, done all the exercises and followed Mizuki instructions to detail - something more incredible yet, Mizuki is forcing your head to do a reverse chronology, you will have to go backwards and as magic, you are going to pull out from the thread, strain-out the timeline, uncover the twist plots and unveil Anohito’s true identity. Have you missed something? Do not worry, for the purposes of this guide, we will go over some of the steps - but remember that when reading the novel, all this comes most naturally in your head; as a reader, you won’t even notice what sort of tricks Mizuki is playing with you.
2. Stear, the timeline & the Époque.
Next, so how do we organize all this info?
Meanwhile I was reading the translations, I came to realize that with so many flashbacks and retrospective 95% of the novel cover past events - even if we read them in present form - they actually happened many years ago (that’s why they are flashbacks)
The only real present of the novel is a spring day - “..the afternoon sunlight of early spring” (B1/pp 230-235) - “It is already dark. The pale blue of the sunset...” (B2/pp 330-331) and account for a mere 5% of the novel, and even during the course of this day and the few minutes we are experiencing the present, we’ll also feel retrospectives. As the day progresses from daylight to sunset, so do Candy’s memories through the first two decades of the XX century. For me the easiest way to control the different time scenes was to create a timeline. Although, there is not one single date in the novel - (also no by chance, but another way for Mizuki to keep the reader alert and active in the novel) - I’ve found three historical events (they might be even more) but so far, all actions can be linked within the historical time frame (either before, during or after) of these three events;
- Mention “There was a great war” (B1/pp 230-235) refers to World War I (1914-1918)
- Mention “far from suffering losses in that financial crisis...” (B2/p 196) refers to Wall Street Crash of 1929
- Mention “The global situation is still unstable”(B1/pp 230-235) refers to the Interbellum (1918–1939)
The second easiest pick is, definitely, Stear’s death (sometimes I think Mizuki needs to kill Stear to give us a historical point of reference). We know he dies before the US involvement in the great war (the date was April 1917). We know his memorial is after the war is over (that was November 1918)
We are also told in the novel, that Annie, Candy & Eliza have all the same age (my guess is that this also applies to Patty); Annie is adopted with 6 years, the same day Candy met the prince (who is 17). Candy was taken in service by the Leagans (or Reagans/Lagans) at 13 and adopted by Uncle William at 14. Archie and Anthony are the same age, Stear was two years older. Anthony died 20 years ago, when he was only 15. Eliza is younger than her brother Neil, and I am guessing Terry & Neil also have Archie’s (or Anthony’s) age.
So, now we have some ages and some historical events, but how can be link these two sets together to form a timeline?
Again, the best way is the reference to the “Great War”; we know the kids leave the school in London before the war starts (this is before June 1914- Summer) we also know that the kids were in Scotland the summer before (thus this has to be the summer of 1913). Therefore, Candy studied in London during 1913. The previous summer, in 1912, Anthony was alive and Candy was just adopted by Great Uncle Williams. The summer before that Candy was working for the Leagan (thus summer 1911) we also know she was taken in by the Leagans in the Spring when she just turned 13 (thus in 1911 Candy was 13 years old) - now we have a match, I can go up and down the timeline, cross-matching Candy’s age with the events and the year they happened. We can establish the past as we know Candy was born 13 years ago this is 1898, 6 years later (1904) she meets the prince (he was 17 - so he was born in 1887) the far back we need to go is into Miss Pony, sister Mary & George’s memories of their past childhood (circa 1860’s)
In the same way, we can also establish the present year; Anthony was 15 years old when he died in 1912, this was more than 20 years ago (1912+20=) 1932 at least, it could be more, we don’t know, but for the purposes of my analysis I’ll keep the present of the novel until 1932 (Candy should be 34). Either way we can never go much further than 1939 (as this will be the beginning of World War II that Candy doesn’t mention, we know about the war because we are in the future, but Candy cannot talk about WWII because it hasn’t happened yet.)
The timeline of the novel will be something approximately, like this;
- Actual present (5% of the novel)- one spring day in (circa) 1932, during the hours of this day Candy recollects her adventures, she has flashback in this present that will transport us back into her past. (Remember that the spring equinox in the north hemisphere is the 21 of March and equals to 12 hour daylight 12 hours darkness, but also the closer we get to the arctic circle the spring days till beginner of summer are the longest of the year)
- Past time (95% percent of the novel) we are reviving Candy’s past (that’s why most of the novel is also written in present tense forms even when all the action happen many years ago, apart from present verbs there are also past tense and futures). The main timeline are the years running from 1904 till c.1920 (in general this timeline advances chronologically - except in the epilogue section, like in a time-loop, we are forced to run again over the same period of years).
1. When Candy writes “Terruce, I love you!” (B2/pp95- 97) is her present of 1913
2. When Candy writes “P.S. Terry ... I loved you.” (B2/pp 274) she writes a past tense in her present of 1919
3. When Candy says “I live with the man I love …” (B1/pp230-235) It is the actual present time of the novel in c.1932
- In the main-timeline of this PAST- there will be also other retrospectives or flashback (they can also come from secondary characters). The retrospectives keep jumping, moving randomly and covering as far back as 1860’s till 1919.
There are also three pairs of events that at first might sound like the same thing, but there at least a year apart from each other, these 6 events are;
- Stear’s Funeral (c.1916 or early 1917) held in Chicago to which Candy is not invited to go & Stear’s Memorial (December 1918) held in Lakewood to which Candy attends.
- The invitation from Eleanor Baker to see Hamlet’s representation (Autumn 1918) & End of Hamlet’s play in the USA (letter to Terry, Summer 1919).
- Annie/Archie’s engagement party in Lakewood (spring, c.1920) & Annie/Archie’s wedding day (c.1921)
Having a timeline, is not only helping to put the events in a chronological order, but is also helping us to understand them in perspective, within their context. To grasp the Political-Social-Cultural background of the novel, we have to jump to the way of life was 100 years ago, adjusting our time-set is mandatory. When Mizuki first published Candy Candy she did it for the Japanese female audience born between 1957 till 1963, if you are born way after this, changes are you don’t know anything about; segregation, sense of duty, honor, society pressure or discrimination. As a modern audience, we cannot take the events out of their real context, otherwise we are never going to understand what’s really happening, instead we have to erase our current way of thinking, our experiences, the present reality we live in and to move to a total different era. Now that we have a time frame (backwards c.1860’s. Main timeline (1904 till 1920). Actual present time c.1932) We have clear eras to relate to; The Progressive Era, The Roaring Twenties & The Great Depression in the USA and as well as some actions are located in the UK, we also have the Victorian & the Edwardian period as well as the World War I & Interbellum eras.
For example, now we can understand the novel’s setting; Television or internet are years from being invented, even telephone & radio are still tested and are not yet a mass media communication. Advances in technology and inventions would go across several stages and developments (sometimes taking decades and even generations) before becoming an everyday item, popular among the masses. - e.g., light bulb, cinema, car, telephone, radio - helped also by consumer spending and economic growth that specially experience the USA during the roaring twenties. News travel fast via telegraph and newspapers, even when the war breaks in Europe in 1914, it takes weeks & even months for the news to reach the population. The war is fought in military ground (mainly big empty fields) with hardly any disturbance to the population - (and even when some large cities suffer some shelling by war aircrafts it is not really until the bombing of Guernica in 1937, that civil population is the main target in a war - still nowadays the saddest example are those happened in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945) -
Europe is the center of the world, (left behind are the spanish and the portuguese empires that didn’t invest in the industrial revolution) but France and Great Britain are still strong and driving, everything they do has an enormous impact, specially in their colonies (that sum up for half of the world’s territory). Germany is going to challenge their supremacy in two occasions (resulting in two world wars) and it won’t be until 1945 that the world power finally shifts from the old Europe to the east (Soviet Union) but specially to the west; USA has been driving the world since the second world war. Look-up for the subtle way of communication between characters in the novel, because it holds keys to history, culture & customs of the era.
In Germany, since 1909, DELAG - first world airline, was transporting passengers using Zeppelins, the Graf Zeppelin will cross the Atlantic Ocean in 1928, making the first ever intercontinental flight, as for the airplane, which already exists but not yet for civil transportation; this project won’t take off until 1930’s, thanks mainly to the Douglas DC-3. In general long distance traveling will be done by steam-engine train or transoceanic ships - going from New York to Southampton would take more than a week and from Southampton to London 1 day. Local transport will include trams, taxis, but mainly horse and carriage and of course walking, - there are some automobiles (which initially only the wealthy can afford, Ford model T will make a huge impact in private transportation, costing already $440 in 1915 (a workers 4 months salary) but even the first models won’t go much faster than horse & carriage - so forget about 120 km/h) - there are hardly any paved roads (there are no roads or highways as such - and paths are depending on the weather, muddy or dusty) in populated areas there are cobblestones streets.
You will keep in contact with your family and friends via letters (telephone lines (hardly exist) & telegraph are expensive used in rare occasions). We know that the letters were written either with dip pen (feather ink) or with fountain pen (the ballpoint pen is not invented until 1938)- ink has to fully dry before you could fold the paper out, the ink is not permanent and smudges if it gets wet, “I stained your letter with tears” (B.2/p.305)- you wouldn’t write on the back side of the paper. If you make a mistake or the pen leaks ink, you will have to start all over again. We also have a way to measure the letters “Thank you very much for reading this long letter all through.” (B2/p. 255) - as in letter from Terry (B2/p283) is more of a short note or the letter from Albert (B2/p296-304) would be 6 to 8 pages long. All this is part of the “lost art of handwriting letters”. The post is also handled manually, still nowadays, mail letters are delivered on foot - but a letter from Kenya to London would take a 1 month average to arrive- (airmail is not standard until after WWII), a letter from New York to Chicago would take 2 weeks. When Candy writes “Prince of the Hill ... Thank you for your immediate reply!” (B2/pp 291-295) “immediately” doesn't mean an email, but at least 5 days waiting reply. Electricity was becoming more available, yet people will depend on natural daylight as much as possible, as for artificial light we have candles & gas lamps - tungsten bulbs are being tested. There is no running hot water, no central heating & very few homes would have a toilet inside.
Child labor is legal so is the physical punishment of children. Hand-labor is hard, slow, cheap & often dangerous. There is no social security, health insurance or pay retirement for the working class - workers unions exists, but with hardly any rights. Life expectancy is that of mid-fifties. Parents don’t get very attached to their children as infant mortality is very high. In the case of Candy falling off the waterfall, the chances of her dying were quite high; skull fracture or drowning but most likely by either hypothermia or pneumonia (there are hardly any medicines at this time, so forget about rescue teams with helicopter, tin foil blanket, serum or ER unit waiting). Chances of Albert dying are also very real, (no because he had a concussion) but without proper care & help he could die of malnutrition or hypothermia (street homeless) - shelters for the poor hardly exist. In Susanna’s case, she is extremely brave, her leg’s operation is done without modern anaesthesia - the chance of gangrene is huge. Terry must take care of her; Susanna parents might live another 10-15 years, being now an invalidate they cannot marry her (even if she is still a virgin or with a dowry) in 1915 there wasn’t something like accident insurance allowance, the government won't take care of her either. Without special help & care that she needs she will die.
In entertainment, we have theater, opera, ballet, parties (ball dancing), listening to music (gramophone) or reading books, cinema and radio is slowing starting but it doesn’t become popular until 1920’s. As pastimes we have embroidering and household for women & cigars, liquors, gambling and a lover for the rich men. Society is mainly patriarchal, largely favor males having a dominant role, most families are also patrilineal. Woman suffrage is legal in some states (which at the time was a shocking idea) but in the real daily life it meant peanuts, because women’s role in society (to marry, to take care of the household, to produce offspring) didn’t change that much, the real women liberation doesn’t happen until 1970 and in many countries nowadays, women are still fighting for rights.
Social dress is a code, a way of communication; elders know the age of the kids by the length of their garment; the girls dress (and by the way the boys trousers as well) is increasingly getting longer until fully covering their ankles by the coming of age at 21, also by this age, all women can tie their hair up and married women would never let their hair down in public. An idiot is a gentleman, who doesn’t wear a hat and bastard is not an insult, but a label society puts on the offspring born outside marriage. Going to mass was mandatory (even if you were not a believer) society would force you to be a good Christian citizen, even if you had to fake it.
Honor is high in the scale of values, duty always comes first, you have to do what is right (not what you want). Arranged marriages were no longer in practice, but nobles wouldn’t marry commoners, and upper-class endogamy is a norm, if someone within the family would bring shame to the estate, relatives can challenge him to leave the lineage, the next legitimate relative could claim & rightfully inherit his wealth. In December 1936 King Edward VIII abdicates to marry the divorcee Wallis Simpson - their affair was the scandal & the commotion of the decade. In the USA, to marry you would need a marriage license with family/parental consent (legal signed document) as marriages were understood an extend contract between two families and no two individuals; In the case of Archie marrying Anne the consent is granted by Uncle William. In the case of Candy “forced-arranged” engagement to Neil, the consent was given by the council of the Aldlay’s elders, Uncle William annuls the consent, most of these norms were still valid way after 1950’s. On the contrary, in the UK the marriage license didn’t change much since the Middle Ages, there is no need for such family consent, as marriage is a direct contract between the two individuals getting married.
Candy’s adoption by Sir Williams will be seen by the society of that time more like a charity work. Candy will get an allowance, but she has no rights to inheritance, the same goes for Terry, (as illegitimate or adopted children could not inherit & this won’t change until late 1970’s -both USA and UK under the legitimacy law). In the anime, Eliza gives Neils the idea to marry Candy so they will get her money when she inherits (after Uncle Williams death) - this an anachronism by Toei- in the manga & the novels - Mizuki explains this better with Neil holding the family hostage (using Stear’s death as blackmail) if he doesn’t marry Candy - this is more likely. Mizuki took some freedom when writing the novel; Terry would never be allowed to use the name Grandchester, another anachronism is Candy’s behaviour; she is often out of place, specially meanwhile working for the Leagans - in most cases she is just Mizuki’s pure imagination, more than a real representation of an orphan in 1910. To the elites Candy's spirit is a nuisance, but to Candy herself, the American dream encourages her to do as she pleases. Which is still a preposterous idea for their British counterparts and the American elites.
On the other hand Aunt Elroy & Sarah Leagan - are right-full representation of their conservative upper-class & social status. Eliza and Neil were superior to Candy, they are raised to know so, being aware of their status & their privileges (they belong to what today we call the 1% elite) in 1910’s they could get away with murder, high society don’t go to jail (nowadays, in many cases they still don’t). On the contrary, William A. Ardlay (as well as Rosemary) follow clear example of liberal & progressive ideas; favoring changes, improvements and reforms toward better conditions, as opposed to their conservative relatives who wish to maintain things as they are. This is also the basic conflict between aunt Elroy and her nephews (and the main reason why some wellcome Candy in the family so easily and others, including the servants won’t ever really accept her). When reading the novel try to keep an eye for this kind of communication between the two sides, and try to understand where they are all standing. (B2/p.200) letter from Candy to Ms. (Sarah) Leagan “ I was deeply moved especially when, in front of the whole family, you have denied the rumor that I was a "compulsive thief'. For many years, it has been a long neglected shadow in my heart. I really don't recall doing anything like that. After having expressed my gratitude, you have replied, "I was only given orders by Great Uncle William". Even if that were the case, it took some courage for you Miss Leagan to have made that statement. Once again, I thank you very much.“ It goes without saying that these are not political views, but social structures; conservatives (Elroy) will keep traditions, hierarchy, old values, established customs, opposite to progressive individuals (W.A.) that are tolerant, open to reforms, new ideas and behaviors (like, women going to university, short and more comfortable clothing or being atheist). In general the society is mainly conservative, specially the upper classes, liberal ideas are more popular among middle class (liberal professions or new wealthy fortunes). The poor class has very little choice or voice in any social change.
There is also a clear reference to Male primogeniture - “The only successor of William, was me, then only 8 years old. The householder could only be a direct descendant of Ardlay named "William". (B2- pp 296-304) When my sister Rosemary was still alive, I was still relaxed. Rosemary was the only one who really understood me. She felt deeply sorry and worry about my position with false identity more than anyone.” Meaning; Rosemary, Albert’s older sister is not eligible to inherit the household - this is an ancient rule from feudal England intent to preserve larger properties from being broken up into small holdings, which might weaken the power of nobles “the first legitimate son (MALE) would inherit the entire estate of his parents” - Yet this rule does not exist in the United States. This might prove that William Albert is part of some European nobility. Also in some mangas Rosemary (Albert’s sister) is addressed as a Countess, making him a Count. In the novel, he is the only character holding the title “Sir” (reserved to lower nobility - either an Earl, a Count, a Baron or even a knight of the Kingdom). Other wealthy, upper-class men are addressed as “Mr.” except for the Great Duke of Grandchester (which is high nobility).
The social scale of the novel is, at its highest; High Upper-Class.- the Duke of Grandchester (high nobility/aristocracy) and Sir William (low nobility? either knight or Count?). Upper-Class.- The Leagan’s or the Cornwell’s. Lower Upper-Class.- The Brighton’s. Middle Liberal-Class.- Cap. Vincent Brown, Eleanor or Dr. Leonard.
To the lowest; Working-Class.- The servants, Albert or the nurses. Poor-Class.- The abandoned children /living out of charity. (“The Great Gatsby” & “The Color Purple” are perhaps better examples of the American social ladders in 1910’s & 1920’s.)
There is also a secondary character that might not look like much at first, he wasn’t there in the previous novel, manga or the anime; Slim “He was a mulatto with gray eyes looking sad. By nightfall he was always crying” (Pg. 3, Prologue) - Mizuki needs him to give us a geographic reference of where Candy & Anohito live in the present time. We know Candy lives “across the ocean” - also if she was living in the USA, she will be talking about “a great depression” (economic downturn in the 1930s) but instead she is talking about “there was a big war, dangerous times, the world situation is very unstable,” referring to the Interbellum (this is a period between wars that affected mainly European territory), but where exactly in Europe is she?;
- “The River Avon flows easily, receiving the sun of this early spring afternoon”(B1/pp 230-235)
- as well the connection with Slim; “it was anohito, some years ago, he found the painting at a flea market in London.” this is the first indication
- then comes the second clue “(Slim ... Where are you now? I hope you're still alive.) I had organized a search but found no trace of Slim.”
So, now that we are set in perspective over 100 -80 years ago, and we are moving between the USA and the UK, lets now understand the plot.
3. Create your own “Anohito”
The novel Candy Candy Final Story is complex; in its content, in its reading, in its analysis, in its conclusion, the good news is that it also resolves itself, but all at its right time. As readers we cannot rush things, we have to let Mizuki & Candy to tell us the story and avoid preconceptions and choices that will lead us to that specific “Anohito” we had on mind. This reminds me of the Choose Your Own Adventure series guidebooks, “where the reader assuming the role of the protagonist, makes choices that determine the main character's actions and the plot's outcome.” In the same way, under the option “create your own Anohito” any male character presented in the novel can full-fill the role of Candy’s love; the rules are simple; you just have to select and read those pages you are more fascinated with, ignore everything else, tide all up with Candy in Anohito’s arms. THE END. There you go, you’ve got yourself the novel & the ending you always wanted. Can Terry be Anohito? Off course, you just need to ignore about 200 pages specially the epilogue. Can Anthony be Anohito? Of course, you just need to ignore 200 pages or so - specially those sections where he is actually dead- . Can Albert be Anohito? Off course, you just need to ignore about 200 pages or so - especially section II -...The con with this option is that every reader will have a “right-full” Anohito... ok, let’s then forget about developing an Anohito’s factory and let’s continue with understanding the plot.
When reading the pages of the novel in its proper order, you’ll empathize with Candy, even mirror her feelings, most likely you will also experiences ups (getting all excited) and downs (getting melancholic, perhaps even crying). The rhythm of the novel mimics that of a rollercoaster, for every up, most likely, there will be a down (some will hit you harder than others). We start at the prologue, which already has a melancholic tone by nature. Moving to beginning of Section I, with the first deep down (Annie leaving Candy for her new life) to the first high (Candy meeting “a Prince” in Pony’s hill).
At times we’ll also experience feelings from other characters; Annie’s Letter to Candy “Every time I receive one (letter) from you, I get teary eyed out of nostalgia, and I am very sorry for not writing you back.(...) Please Candy, do not write to me anymore.(..) I don't want anyone to know that I came from an orphanage. And an abandoned child at that. I don't even want to think about it! (...) They all believe that I am a true daughter of the Brightons. If they find out that I was an orphan--- just imagining it, it's so dreadful I can barely take it. Candy, I really don't want them to know. (..) This is my last letter. Candy, won't you please do the same? I'm so sorry. I pray that you will find happiness, I really do! I'm very sorry!” (B1/pp 41-42)
This is extremely sad as the rejection is not towards Candy as much as it is to herself; Annie has to sacrifice the people she once loved to keep up the appearances. She is already adopted, so she doesn’t have right to inherit title, estate, land or properties from the Brighton's, but most likely her parents will leave aside some money, goods or even jewelry for her dowry. The prospects of finding a suitable candidate among the upper-class gentlemen can be shattered by the revelation that she comes from an orphanage- and we also have to remember that the main role of women in this society is to marry and produce offspring. Even after becoming a Lady, Annie will always be in the shadow of her past.
We’ll follow Candy thought more ups and downs; she is adopted- in service- to Eliza, meets Anthony and the kids, fights with Anthony, meets Albert, falls in love with Anthony, she is accused of robbery, sent to Mexico to finally being rescued by George and adopted by Sir William A.A.. Happiness starts with Anthony by her side until tragedy strikes again with a new deep-low in the novel - Anthony dies.
More ups & downs follows in the second part, she meets Terry, she studies in London, trying to cure Terry she meets Albert again, she fights Terry, Terry kisses her, she bids farewell to Anthony, she falls in love with Terry and happiness starts once more with Terry by her side until he voluntarily leaves the school to protect Candy. She leaves London shortly after him.
The third part is now different (compared to the manga or the anime, but mimics the novel of 1978) from now on, almost every fact we are going to read comes from letter/correspondence. It is hard to follow the events in a chronological order because most of the letters are not in order but clustered by themes instead. Never the less, the clusters also follow the same patron of ups & downs; cluster letters from the Miami Resort Inn (B2/pp 200-214) the first two letters (to Sarah and to Stewart were shallow) then the one to Mary is complice and happy, we jump down to Mr. Whitman with a quite somber letter, to go up once again, in the last letter, written in an over optimist-chitchatting manner to George.
The Epilogue is not much different, we are already in good spirit (after reading Terry note’s “— I haven't changed at all.” (B2/pp283). Candy has finally an opportunity to be happy, now we read the correspondence between Albert & Candy, she is the happiest she's ever been in the novel, her mood is up, she is joking, she is excited, she is even FLIRTING... oh yes this is going to end good I can feel it, just before meeting Albert in Lakewood - Candy writes “Now, this will be the end of this letter because I want to see you in person. Perhaps stingy, Candy” (B2/p. 316) When they finally meet, they grieve over Anthony’s death, they talk about the opposition to Rosemary’s marriage & W. A. returns the diary back to Candy - that’s pretty much it, quite disappointed for a 1 to 1 conversation, not a kiss, not a love confession, nothing. But the worst is still to come in Anthony’s letter - did I just got hit by a train? - What is this all about? This is the most sad letter in the entire book. … And finally she runs into Anohito’s arms giving us hope once more.... What just has happened? ...
You might have to leave things sinking-in for a while, or perhaps you want to read section III again (now that you have read the whole epilogue), but eventually your brain will get hit with “that detail”; perhaps in Anthony’s letter, perhaps Susanna’s letter, perhaps “Hamlet” but either way you will pull-out from this thread and as a chain reaction, all the plot twists will reveal before your eyes...
In the Manga, the anime and the old novel, there were only two plot twists, we all know the story by now, so those plot twists are not even significant any more.
- First plot twist - Albert is Sir William A. Ardlay
- Second plot twist - Albert /Uncle William is also the Prince of Pony’s Hill
In Candy Candy Final Story, Mizuki presents two new more plot twist
- Third plot twist - Terry seems to be Anohito
Terry & Candy’s develop their love relationship in the section II of the novel, in section III we read the outcome - Candy tell us that they were just missing each other, always about to meet, but they never succeeded, until that winter in New York, where Terry (unfortunately) must take care of Susanna & Candy is left with a broken heart. We keep reading the letters in section III and we feel Candy’s despair, but somehow it seems - with the help of her friends - she is getting better & smiling once again, until we read the last cluster of letters and retrospection - related to Terry (B2/pp271-283) - just before the epilogue.
It feels like Candy is unstable, suffers some kind of imbalance or is simply keeping-up appearances and lying to herself. To Eleanor Baker she writes - “I wanted to see Terry’s play… But I also do not want to… If I see him, I would surely want to meet him. When I meet him, I would want to speak to him even just for once. And I also have to keep a promise I made to Suzana Marlowe. I promised her I would never see him again.” (B2/pp271-273) the next letter is to Terry (she doesn't send it out) but she writes - “I'm happy. And you, Terry, I hope you too will be happier! (...) P.S. Terry...l loved you.” (B2/pp274-277). Then it comes the letter that Susanna wrote to Candy, her obituary and finally a short note from Terry to Candy; “I haven't changed at all.” If Candy was waiting for her chance to be happy with Terry here it is, and after all Terry seems to be Anohito (unless you have already discovered the plot twist or you have read the letters in the epilogue).
Well, first thing to notice is that the letters are not in chronological order, Mizuki moved them and cluster them to create a different narrative; the most obvious is Susana’s letter to Candy, that was written in 1915 just after Candy’s trip to New York (breaking up with Terry) and its right place is before Annie's Letter to Candy (B2/pp 230-233) and then it should be Candy's Retrospection on the Separation scene (B2/pp234-237). The letters to Eleanor and to Terry are at least a year apart from each other (perhaps even more) - one is about the opening of the play Hamlet and the other one about the end of the performance in the USA.
But more interesting yet, are the two anchors Candy writes in her letter to Terry;
1. “Terruce's "Hamlet" "is also going to be performed in Britain!” this means the war (WWI) has to be over, -Stratford company would not risk to go into a warzone - thus this letter was written at least in 1919.
2. “Oh, how Albert didn’t confess when he got back his memory. Even now he is still full of mysteries.” here Candy refers to her letters to Albert in the epilogue.
- I wonder if you had already regained your memory at that time. (I'll press you with questions next time!) (B2/pp 291-295) and then again “I hoped you regain your memory soon... By the way, when did you regain your memory?” (B2/pp 306-309)
- Albert doesn’t reply immediately in his next letter but in (B2/pp 311-315) he writes “When I recovered my memory”... I think it was triggered by that traffic accident in which I was brought to Dr. Martin”
What is the meaning of all this? Well, the first time we read Terry’s cluster letters, we think Candy is lying to herself, because she doesn’t know what she really wants - she wants to see Terry but she doesn’t want to see him because the promise she made to Susanna - finally she writes that she is happy in a letter to Terry that she doesn’t send, d'uh? But understanding now that Mizuki anchors the letter Candy writes to Terry in 1919, at the high pick of her correspondence with Albert, makes the meaning of this letter to Terry completely different; When Candy writes to Terry in reality, she does it meanwhile waiting on Albert’s reply, when candy writes in 1919 “I'm happy” she is genuinely happy (with Albert), when she writes “P.S. Terry...l loved you.” she is not confused, she really knows her love feelings for Terry are over (6 years has passed since their relationship in the UK, and 4 since they broke up in New York).
It also makes sense that she writes about this, it’s what cognitive therapy refers to as “writing out your thought records”, she doesn’t need to send the letter out either. In the same way when she writes in her diary “And I wanted to say this at the top of my voice. Terruce, I love you! More than anybody else … “(B2/pp143-146) she didn’t really say it to anyone else- we read about it, Uncle William reads about it, but that’s about it - she doesn’t really ever writes or ever tells Terry “I love you” - in the same way she doesn’t need to tell him or write to him “I don’t love you anymore”, but instead she writes this to herself to close the circle, Terry is over. In fact Mizuki writes four different goodbyes for the relationship Candy-Terry. Not when he leaves the school, (because he disappears, without saying goodbye and Candy has hopes to see him again) “T.G. has gone, leaving many memories … no, I can't say, "memories, "gone" We will meet again someday ….” (B2/pp143-146)
1. The one and only physical goodbye between them is in New York, this is at the end of 1915 “When I was about to come out of the hospital, Terry suddenly embraced me from behind. Tightly, really tightly―Just a little longer.... as it is....” (B2/pp234-237)
2. The second one is a psychological goodbye from Candy to Terry in Rocktown “I wanted to storm inside that ramshackle stage and hit Terry in the chest as I cried. I thought, what was that night for, when I… when we broke off!" (B2/pp271-273)
3. The third one, also psychological from Candy to Terry - in the letter she doesn’t send - “And I wish you to be even happier!” (B2/pp274-277)
4. The last one is a goodbye with Albert as a witness, “Yes, that diary was mostly about Terry. I too was anxious about that diary. Now, the diary that I have once given back, returned to my hands once more. I never opened it though. I am going to ask you to look after it again. Just as you have sent your badge back to me.” (B2/pp316-322)
There is a last thought Candy gives to her relationship with Terry in (B2/pp324-328, Candy's Letter to Anthony) where she writes “I fell hard for someone who looked like you in London. Yet, I only thought you looked alike for a moment, because he probably was completely your opposite. With him, I found out that there are various ways to love. Also, the fact that there are things once lost will never return.” This is not a goodbye but a reinforcement on her lost feelings for Terry. So it doesn’t really matter, whatever way we put it, Mizuki always makes Terry loose for Albert’s benefit;
- If we keep the narrative in the novel the way Mizuki writes it, Terry’s note is outcast with the correspondence between Candy & Albert in the epilogue.
- When we put the letters in its chronological order, it is even worse, because Terry’s letter “I loved you” depends directly on Albert’s reply.
Those letters that Candy writes but she doesn’t send out; to Terry (B2/pp274-277), to Stear (B2/pp264-267), to Anthony (B2/324-328) are letters that in reality she writes to herself - they are all part of her own therapy, even when she addressed them to different people and they are written a different time and with such different content. They all share the same purpose - to write out her thought records in the given moment. So why does she write them? This bring me to the 4th and last plot twist of the novel.
4. Fourth plot twist - Albert seems to be Anohito
Initially we might presume that Candy distance herself from Albert (once he becomes Sir William A. Ardlay), we can read it in many of the letter across section III (B2/pp 246) in the way Candy -while writing to others- refers to him; from Granduncle William, to Uncle William, Mr. William A. Ardlay or even Sr. Albert. But as we have learnt by now, nothing in this novel is at it seems, we can already contrast this by the way Candy addresses Albert in the epilogue letters; starting somehow formal, Dear Uncle William or William Albert Ardlay, changing very fast into a more close intimate format; Dear prince of Pony’s Hill, Dear Albert, Dear Prince-Graaandpa, My father, Dear Albert, Little Bert.
Furthermore, we know that Mizuki changed the chronological order of the events to alter the narrative of the novel, but in doing so she also left enough clues for us to anchor these letters within those in the section III - I’ve already explained the link between Candy’s letter to Terry’s and Albert’s memory, but there are more;
- The most obvious one is the one Candy writes to George (B2/pp 208-214), is impossible for Candy to know so much about George & his relationship with Albert unless she first read the letter William Albert sent to her (B2/pp 296-304)
- In the same way Candy writes in her letter to Mary “Was I a sorceress and I had not noticed?” (B2/pp 203-204) mirrors the spell Candy cast to Albert in (B2/pp291-295) and Albert’s reply “Dear Candy, Miss sorceress,” (B2/pp296-304) and consecutive repeating this same subject across the letter.
- In Candy's Letter to Mr. Whitman (B2/pp205-207) Candy writes “I live now close to Pony’s home - the place where I come from - I am working now as a nurse in "Happy Martin Clinic» anchors the letters in the epilogue to William Albert (B2/pp306-309) “I worry about your health. Dr. Martin also said you should not strain yourself too much, don’t you remember? your amnesia might come back” and then (B2/pp317-322) “As for me, as usual, I have just come back from the “Happy Martin Clinic” and put the children to bed.”
All this means that when Candy goes to the opening party of Leagan’s Miami Resort Hotel (B2/pp 198-214) (she already knows that William Albert is the prince of Pony hill or she is just about to find out) it is more, Candy & W. A. are acting formal and keeping up their distance in front of the crowd, but behind the scene they are writing romantic letters to each other. These are the kind of letters Candy wanted to get from Terry “I wanted to get more romantic letters but you were always teasing me… yet, I believe I knew what was inside your heart.” (B2/pp274-277). Yes, the correspondence in the epilogue is very romantic - it might not seem so to us, in our giving time - but anyone else reading these same letters 90 years ago, will have a very different idea - Aunt Elroy sure, would have a heart attack - and yes, Candy is very aware of W. A.’s feelings for her, and, so by the way, is he aware of her feelings for him. -
Yes, Candy & W. A. love each other, but this is beside the point, because it doesn’t really matter how they feel about each other - there is nothing they can do about it; He is rich, he is a millionaire. She is working class, living from charity most of her life, even worse, she is an abandoned child. It will be the same if he was black and she was Asian or if he was Muslim and she was a Jew; This has nothing to do with what you think is right or wrong, but what the American society at the beginning of the XX century thought it was acceptable or not; and for these, they were laws - no interracial marriages (imposed by the State) - no interfaith marriage (imposed by the Church) and no inter-class marriages (imposed by family & society).
You wouldn’t just think Mizuki will write a happy ending for Candy, would you? - let’s recap; Candy falls in love with Anthony but unfortunately he dies. Candy falls in love with Terry but unfortunately he stays with Susanna. Candy falls in love with millionaire Sir William Albert & they live happily ever after? yeah right! do you still think so? - NO! unless you need a quick fix or you believe Albert’s feelings for Candy are superior to those from Anthony or from Terry.
Difference in social status among the characters is a constant theme in the novel - there are plenty of examples from the first letter Annie writes to Candy (B1/pp41-42), to the multitude of outbursts from Eliza to Candy (B1), to her isolation at the boarding-school (B1 & B2). At the same way the upper-class endogamy is a strong sub-theme. There are at least 4 love cross-ladder relationship examples or exogamy love stories in the novel. The two more obvious - because we read about them directly in the novel are the Brown marriage (Rosemary & Vincent - Anthony’s parents) and Annie & Archie’s relationship. These two couples succeed in being together despite initial struggle due to their social differences;
1. Cap. Vincent Brown has more of a middle class background, definitely not at the same economic level as Rosemary Ardlay (in some mangas they gave Rosemary the title of “Countess”, making, her brother, W.A. a “Count”), but at least Vincent Brown had a family root and a name. Rosemary was ready to renounce to her privileges and those of her offspring (Anthony) rights to inherit or to claim estate. “A person’s happiness is not based on one’s pedigree or money. It is living with the ones you love. If I could not have that, then I will forever shed the name of Ardlay” (B2/pp324-328)
2. In the case of Annie (despite being adopted by the Brighton’s) is rejected by her fiancé’s family, due to her unknown origins “Perhaps the one of the biggest reason for the objection is because like me, Annie was an orphan.” - (B2/pp260-263)- it might seem she holds a good position in society but by law she has no rights to inherit her parents estate, even in the case of marrying Archie or becoming her widow she still has no rights due to her past. She can only hope to have offspring from Archie, preferable male or to die before him. - But different to Candy, Annie was raised as a lady “unlike myself, Annie have been adopted by the Brighton’s since she was a child. They have raised her like a true daughter” (B2/pp260-263), this is probably what saves Annie from total rejection.
3. The real sad love-story is that of the Duke Grandchester & Eleanor Baker (natural parents of Terry). Terry is a love-child, nothing more pure & beautiful than him and yet, society doesn’t want him, ignores and excludes him. Terry is angry and he has every right to be like this, he is a “filius nullius” and nothing else than the marriage of his parents, would clear his stigma - for this to happen the great Duke would have to renounce to his privileges, to his name, to himself - his family/relatives can claim his title if he does something dishonest (as it is marrying outside his social status, to join in matrimony with a commoner; “she wanted to live with Grandchester and me if possible.... rather than succeed as an actress…) B2/pp 83-92- it’s the paradox of the society - the Duke & Eleanor might still love each other - but the rules of society only allow them to be lovers.
4. By the end of the 1910’s decade, Candice White and William Albert Ardlay are in-love with each other, but the American society of that époque & his family would never allow them to be together as husband & wife - “If I could have, I would still have liked to live in secret with you” (B2/pp288-290) - It is also about honor, in the same way that Candy didn’t ask Terry to abandon Susanna, Candy is never going to ask W.A. to renounce to himself - to his duties (it is not about the money) but his responsibilities, to deceive those to he owns so much; George & Aunt Elroy. In the same way that a man cannot be both the groom and his witness at his own wedding, he also cannot write his own consent to get married. Society only allows them to be lovers, but W.A. would never take Candy as his lover; she wouldn’t risk getting pregnant and having an illegitimate child herself, and even when condoms (and means for abortion) were available, I doubt they will explore this option, my bet is that they both go into celibacy - nowadays this custom seems out of fashion, but 80 years ago it wouldn’t be such an odd option for young people to stay unmarried all their lives - hiding perhaps from a love paradox, an another sad love story.
Mizuki’s imagination cannot change history, nor the set rules of USA society at the beginning of the XX century. The reader who doesn’t understand this principle, should stop reading anything else related to Candy Candy’s novel and spend his/her time doing something more productive, like growing lettuces in Farmville.
When Candy writes her last letter to aunt Elroy (B2/pp260-263) - she is already in love with W. A., “After a lot of uncertainty, I finally got the courage to pick up the pen.” because in this letter she is not only talking about Annie & Archie, but most of what she says applies also to W. A. & herself, in this way we can also feel her despair. In the other hand the letter is also a way to reassure aunt Elroy, that Candy knows her place in society “Moreover, unlike myself, Annie have been adopted by the Brighton’s since she was a child. They have raised her like a true daughter, I think Great Aunt, you are fully aware of that.” and if she approves their engagement “Would you also consider giving your blessing to the two lovers Great Aunt?” - Candy will not aim for the same treatment, perhaps is a way of sacrificing herself for Annie & Archie as by now she is starting to understand her own limitations.
In the letter to Stear (B2/pp264-267) - Candy writes about these same thoughts “At first, it seemed that Uncle William wasn’t expecting such strong opposition”...”I think he strongly disagree with his relatives. Because Uncle William, as a principle, does not pay attention to the birth or the family of a person.” “Perhaps I am the reason … I think Grandma's relatives are still upset with my adoption because Mr. Albert acted so wayward …” and for last time in the letter to Anthony (B2/pp 324-328) “After the long silence, he began to talk about the story of your mother and your father, Miss Rosemary’s and Mr. Vincent Brown’s marriage. Saying that coming from different social status, they faced strong opposition from the family, but his sister did not yield. A person’s happiness is not based on one’s pedigree or money. It is living with the ones you love. If I could not have that, then I will forever shed the name of Ardlay. “Rosemary was kind and gentle but she had strength in her too”, said Albertsan.” but unlike Rosemary, W. A. cannot abandon the Ardlay’s name because he is the “name”, he has to fulfill his destiny - to be head of the clan.
W. A. is also aware of the family’s opposition and understanding that they are never going to be together, in an ultimate love’s sacrifice he gives the diary back to Candy “This is… important to you.” You said softly as you stared outside the window. You said it very quietly---. (B2/pp 316-322) - the diary is a symbol of Candy’s love for Terry - “Yes, that diary was mostly about Terry.” - Albert, in a symbolic way is not only giving back the diary, but Candy’s freedom “I'm going to find out where your happiness lies.” (B2/pp 311-315) - is his way of saying -I want you to be happy, even if it means to lose you to another man - If you still love him go back to Terry, be happy, don’t wait for me because I cannot offer you anything, our faith is sealed. What Albert doesn’t know is that Candy no longer loves Terry, she already had closure, so she replies to Albert “Now, the diary that I have once given back, returned to my hands once more. I never opened it though. I am going to ask you to look after it again. Just as you have sent your badge back to me. (...) I am truly grateful to my parents who left me in Pony’s Home. It is because of them that I met you! It is I who most utterly thankful. That is right Albert, My happiness is now.” (B2/pp 316-322). Finally, In her sad letter to Anthony (B2/pp 324-328), she tries to give a psychological goodbye to W. A. “But---- now… I learned that there are people, although still alive, are bound by fate never to meet again.” Candy became a single strong independent woman, enjoying life & friends, looking with optimism to the future. “There must be something waiting out there in the bright tomorrow. Whatever it is, I’m looking forward to it. (...) Anthony… watch over me okay.”
Once we put the letters of the epilogue in its right place and straighten the time line we will have a clear overview and understanding of what actually happened - in previous work - the action ended by 1916 or 1917 (before the war was over), but in the new novel Mizuki stretches the action over more years, - (e.g. by the end of the war, Archie is studding in Massachusetts and Candy & Albert start their correspondence) giving us a slightly new chronology.
The content of the first book and half of the second one doesn’t change at all, we can read until the end of section II without any difference in the plot. The letters in the epilogue will only affect the narrative of the section III; - the confusion starts from page 200 onwards, - the party in Miami (B2/pp200 till 215) happens well after, Candy & Neil’s engagement party, plus Candy & Albert are already writing to each other since the beginning of 1919.
To understand the chronology we need to go back to the last months of 1915, because Candy first needs to go to New York, to see Terry and to come back with a broken heart (B2/pp230), also Susanna’s letter to Candy that we read in page 278 and Candy's Retrospection on the Separation scene p.237 should be included/read now at this same time. There are also the cluster letters about Stear (of 21) joining the army (end of 1915 )and dying a year shortly after that (B2/pp220 to 229) in 1916. Meanwhile Candy is starting to achieve some happiness living with Albert at their Chicago apartment (2 years after her breakup with Terry).
Albert already regained consciousness and he disappears in early 1917 - leaving a sad Candy behind, meanwhile searching for Albert, Candy (saw Terry) & meets Eleanor in Rocktown (but we’ll read about this encounter in her letter to Eleanor (pp.271-273)) written in the following year, so this is a Candy’s retrospective in 1918 about meeting Eleanor in early 1917) the letter to Eleanor is also written just around Candy & Neil engagement party, where Sir William (just turning 30) present himself to society. By the end of 1918, Candy moves back to Pony’s hill, the war ends, Stear’s Memorial is held in Lakewood (Candy's Letter to aunt Elroy p.255). At Christmas of this same year, Candy also writes to Dr. Martin (pp.246-250) & to Vincent Brown (Anthony's Father) pp.251-252.
In early 1919 the new extension of Pony’s home starts, also we have the party in Miami, and in the early spring, William Albert finally presents himself to Candy as the Prince of Pony’s Hill - here comes the first letter in the epilogue (pp. 286 till 290) and then the next 4 letters between themselves (pp. 291-304) that mirrors those letters from the Miami party or page 200 till 215.
Archie moved to Massachusetts to finish his studies (by the end of 1918, after Stear memorial), but is now in early spring of 1919, when Candy writes to him (letter’s to Archie p.256 - because in this letter she already knows Albert is also the Prince). By May of this same year, we have Candy’s birthday party in Chicago & the letters in the epilogue (pp.296 till 309), plus the letter Candy writes to Terry and never sends out (pp.274-277). Sometime later during this year Albert leaves for a long business trip, that will send him as far as San Paulo, (p.310 and pp. 311-315), from where Albert's replies about recovering his memory, meanwhile, the relationship Annie-Archie is not seeing with good eyes among Ardlay’s elders.
In early 1920- March? Candy writes a letter to Grandmother Elroy (pp.260-263) about Annie & Archie’s relationship (behind William Albert & Archie’s knowledge). A few weeks later she writes to Stear (pp.264-267), probably by May 1920/Spring we have the engagement party (pp.268-270 Retrospection on Annie's Archie's engagement party). Albert is back from his traveling and goes to meet Candy in Pony’s hill to bring her to Lakewood - pp.316-322 - this was going to be their most romantic moment, but instead of being in each other arms loving each other, W.A. returns the diary back to Candy (pp.316-322) - as we read the last romantic somehow sad letter of their correspondence, understanding that their romance cannot flourish. Finally Candy tries to have some closure about her feelings for W.A. in her letter to Anthony pp.324-328.
In the Spring of 1921- Annie/Archie’s wedding. Susanna dies a few years after this, 1923? or perhaps 1925?. Terry writes to Candy 18 months later, in 1926? (p.283). It seems Terry is waiting on Candy’s reaction, finally he decides to take the initiative himself, his note doesn’t affect Candy because in reality her heart lies with someone else.
ok, but there is something missing, because we know Candy lives in the present with Anohito “I live with the man I love …” , true, there some more dates that we need to add to the new timeline. What happened then? - we know that her feelings for Terry are overdue and in fact William Albert was the last man she was in love with, but their fate was doomed. Well if you were paying attention to Anthony’s letter, you might have the first clue, “The Prince of the Hill”, who looked like you was also Albertsan. Can you imagine my amazement? Yes, that vague memory you had of that teenager, was actually your uncle’s. It’s only natural that you two looked alike (...) I wonder what kind of man you would turn out to be if you were still alive.” (B2/pp 324-328). Also in a new unexpected turn of events there is an economical crisis “that financial crisis...” (B2/p 196) referring to the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the final clue “the Master House of the Ardlay in Lakewood, is now handed over to others.” (B1/pp. 230-235). It could be that the economical crisis affects Sir W.A. Ardlay’s fortune - he might lose some, part or most of it - perhaps forcing him to leave his property in Lakewood (the state wasn’t much in use, but this is the land where his parents, sister & nephew are buried). But more decisive yet, the great depression is now starting - there is going to be a severe worldwide economic depression with international trade plunged by more than 50%. - there is no much need for businessmen & William Albert trips are definitely over. Perhaps, now he even got a weak heart attack “Thanks to Great-Uncle William, it became possible to obtain the land from Mr. Cartwright. And Pony’s House is filled with orphans as usual. I wish I could be of more help to the teachers, but at this moment----I don’t want to leave HIM who, above all, wants me by his side all the time.” (B1/pp. 230-235).
4. “ALBERT” VS ANOHITO
So, then “Albert” is Anohito after all?... well.. not really, Anohito is a new person but also the sum of many old characters.
The first thing we need to understand is where the person “Albert” stands in the present time of the novel. In order to illustrate this point, I am going to make use of the eternal superhero conflict; is “Albert” a “Superman” or is “Albert” more of a “Batman” - NO, I don’t mean this as in “which kind of superhero is he”, but more in terms of is he real or not? Let’s see;
- Superman (or Kal-El) is an extraterrestrial (from Kryptonian) that has superpowers in earth, for him to camouflage among civilians needs to “create” an ALTER EGO; the clumsy photographer Clark Kent.
- Bruce Wayne is a millionaire - that using the latest top-secret technology of his labs, fights crime in Gotham city, to do this incognito he creates “Batman” - His ALTER EGO.
- So, under which category follows “Albert” - ALTER EGO or real person? well... Sir William A. Ardlay (aka Uncle William) is a millionaire who adopts Candy, in order to go undercover, he goes by his second name Albert, pretending to be a tramp, a stowaway or working in a zoo among others. Yes, “Albert” is to all effect Sir William’s ALTER EGO, his life and any of his appearance doesn’t correspond with the real person.
Kal-El, Bruce Wayne or Sir William are the real being. Clark Kent, Batman or Albert are all examples of ALTER EGOS.
(Sir) William A. Ardlay is always aware of his real person - as a “prince”- dress-up in the Male highland costume, as a “pirate” in faded loose jacket, or in London as a worker in worn out safari shirt and slightly stained trouser.. . he is constantly mislead or “soft” lying “ he sneaked into a ship and came to England…. Does that mean he was a stowaway?” “he was chased out from the mountain cottage of the Ardlay Estate” “Since he was chased out, Albert said he has no idea what happened to that forest or the mansion.” “‘a friend recommended me to work at the ‘Blue River Zoo’” (B2- 305-310) to eventually, apology along the epilogue “Let me renew my apologies” “I can understand you're angry. I've always kept secret about being the "Uncle William", and William A. Ardlay. It was not easy for me to keep it hidden, but I will not make excuses.”
“Albert” is nothing else than the useful creation of William A. Ardlay, with the only purpose of living “incognito”, and even when he also hold “Albert” as his middle name, the “Albert” that he creates has very little to do with reality, if “Albert” was really a young boy of working class, he probably wouldn’t have the chance to run away, neither chances of “driving a car” in 1904 or to meet Candy in Pony’s hill dressed in a Scottish costume, “Albert” wouldn’t be in the Ardlay’s property rescuing Candy from a Cascade or he wouldn’t have the money nor the means to adopt her, even less to meet her in London again. To all effects “Albert” doesn’t exist, he never did. During his amnesia, he is forced to live like “Albert” because he doesn’t know any better, until he remembers his real self “When I came to — I was my former self again. Albert … William Albert Ardlay. I should have told you at once, but I couldn't. I'm still feeling sorry about it.” (B2/ pp.311-315)
so, who is Anohito then, or what do we know about him? well, he is still born in 1887 as William A. Ardlay, he is still blond with blue eyes - probably with less money now, perhaps even without using the title “Sir” in the current times. But he still has his skills, educated in the best colleges of the USA and the UK, raised to be a leader, probably speaks French and knows Latin & Greek too, as well as science & mathematics, perhaps now he has a liberal job - he might be a director, a lawyer or even a doctor now - In Africa he worked in a clinic for humans. Either way Anohito still is, the Prince of Pony hill. “Sore wa akarui anohito oka no ue” ("The Cheerful One of the hilltop") . But he is also an upgrade, better than William Albert, definitely far much better than Albert - we could say he is more of an Anthony in adult stage. Candy and him can finally marry - it should be so - as they could be lovers more than one decade ago, so I cannot imagine they waited all these years to be companions just now.
“What it is like to become happy? I still cannot say I've found the answer. What I still want is just a little thing, to live together with the one I love …”(B1/pp. 216-219)
So, is this really a happy ending after all? Well it depends on what you understand for happiness. This is not an average “Hollywood- happy-ever-after”, Candy & Anohito might enjoy some years of stability, but WWII is about to break in Europe, by 1939 civilians and large populated areas are also targets and they will be constantly bombed. They might leave Europe before the war starts (but if she is a nurse and he might be a doctor) chances are they will stay put and care about of the wounded, so he might have died, she might died or both died. either way by the end of the war in 1945 if they are both still alive- he will be 58 and Candy will be 47 (life expectancy in the UK in 1930 was 47 for a man and about 50 for a woman). if still alive, Candy is today 108 years old and W.A. is 119.
5. Why an “ epilogue” and final Chronology
Why is that Mizuki needs to complicate this plot so much? why is that she is not straightforward and give a direct end to the audience? Personally, I can think of at least three reasons why Mizuki needs to write such a complex structure;
1. Personal challenge & boredom - We have to remember that this is the 6th time Mizuki tell us about the adventures of Candy Candy; in format Manga, TV series, Letter, Poems, Novel & Movies. This novel couldn’t just be like the other previous novels (otherwise it will feel like a reprint of old works, and she would be cheating the audience (morally & economically). Therefore this novel need to be different, and as the creative person she is, Mizuki, also needed a personal challenge for her, so this time she writes a superb narrative-logic-puzzle; the novel is fantastic in itself, is full of hidden clues and links, the more you read the more fascinated it gets - you have to work as a detective, moving along the pages, reading the information and finding evidence of what really happened to finally deduct Anohito’s true identity.
2. In the epilogue we are also presented with a kind of Déjà Vu, is like life goes-on and continues throughout the years (Annie’s wedding, Susanna’s death), yet in the epilogue we are set back in a Time Loop, so we can understand what really happened between Candy & W.A. - their relationship is frozen in time because they have unresolved business and they never got closure. We have to go back on time with them because we have to correct the mistake.
3. The third reason is of course THE BIG SECRET; CCFS is very personal and intimate, most of the time as a spectators we are finding ourselves in a privileged position, it is only this way we can access so much confidential information - this is mostly true when we read personal letters (everybody knows you shouldn’t read other’s people mail, it is often considered of really bad taste). The third section and the epilogue are both sharing the same epistolary structure, and we also know that in order to understand the novel as a whole we have to put the epilogue together with the third section. Yet Mizuki deliberately writes two different sections, just for us to find out the biggest secret of the novel; Candy and W.A. meet in reality in 1904 and no in 1911 - like everybody else think (saving Candy from the waterfall and meeting again in London in 1913). Nobody knows they talk for first time 15 years ago - Candy tells Anthony about “her prince” and the medallion, but Anthony dies. Then she also tells Albert about him “I have showed you my treasured badge and told you many times about the "Prince on the Hill" when we lived in the House of Magnolia!” but Albert turned out to be the prince himself. So who else know about the Prince? well us as spectators, we read about this encounter in page 24 of the first book… and, well perhaps Georges in his pursuit after Sir William in 1904, might had also seen a little blond girl over that hill, by end of 1912 when picking up Candy from Pony’s Home to send her to London’s boarding school - he might had put two & two together and come to the conclusion that this “Hill” where he found the master 8 years before holds more than one connection. But for the rest of characters, this brief encounter in early spring of 1904, between Candy & W.A. never happened.
When reading the letters in the epilogue, we need to understand this setting, the big secret; nobody knows Candy & W.A. meet 15 years ago, nobody knows they are writing romantic letters to each other, nobody knows they are in love with each other. They are living a secret relationship and “Albert” is an expert in keeping things undercover, and off course some of the letters in section III, have a new meaning once we understand the real secret that the epilogue hides.
Candy's Letter to Archie (B2 - pp 256-259) is one of those “wonderful” letters that hold a second meaning after reading the epilogue - at first it feels like Candy writes about events that happen a few months, nothing relevant here - “It was that time when you found out that Albert is Uncle William!” referring to Candy and Neil’s engagement party (late spring/summer 1918) and later “I think you must be relieved because you’re able to have Stear’s funeral in Lakewood.”- (referring to December 1918) “Right now, Pony’s home is under renovation.” (early 1919)
Candy hasn’t seeing Archie since “Stear’s Memorial in Lakewood (December 1918) and she is not going to see him until May 1919 at her birthday’s party in Chicago. But the letter itself is written probably in early spring 1919 - in connexion with the first letter of the epilogue; “I never thought you would be so busy as the head of the Ardlay family” mirrors “As the head of the Ardlay family, Albertsan seems to be very busy recently”.
Meaning, Candy's Letter to Archie is written after she finds out; Albert is also the Prince of Pony’s Hill. So in this letter, she writes about how shock Archie was, a year ago, after Albert reveals himself to society as Great -Uncle William, but in reality she needs to tell someone else, that she is also in-shock because he is the prince as well. “Albert and Uncle William. Even now, I still can’t believe that they are the same person. That time, you looked wide-eyed and pointed your finger at Albert and unable to speak! It was that time when you found out that Albert is Uncle William! You should’ve seen the look on your face! Archi--- do you remember how many times you have repeatedly asked? It was 9 times!!! Including the times you muttered to yourself.”
There is no need for Candy to write to Archie about something he said almost a year ago, but after reading the epilogue we understand her real need is getting this secret out of her chest, telling someone else “HE DID IT AGAIN”, even when she has to write it in code. “I’m amazed how those people could keep their lips sealed with such a secret. If it was us……. I have no confidence. We’ll immediately slip for sure. (what? Did you just say absolutely?!)” Surprisingly enough, from this moment on (spring 1919) till next year (spring 1920) Candy & WA are going to keep-up appearances and behaving formal, even distant in front of others, yet behind the scene they are closer than ever, being very personal, intimate & romantic with each other.
"Please don't portray Candy like a fickle girl!" Mizuki to Igarashi (in 1975) - source; Vic Isono’s notes
(Mizuki was angry because meanwhile she was on a European tour, Igarashi changed the sequence of the events without her consent- Mizuki's planned that, after the rebirth of Terry as an actor at Rocktown, Candy made up her mind to go back to the starting point for her independence. But in the monthly print-out of Nakayoshi - (1975) Igarashi portrayed Candy fell in love with Albert immediately after she finished her relationship with Terry (giving the wrong impression that Candy was flickering between guys). Fortunately, in CCFS, Mizuki takes again good control over Candy’s love life and she makes sure there is enough space between the different loves to flourish, separating perfectly the three love stories in time & space;
- Section I (pp. 14 till 228 (book1)) - (she meets, the prince, Albert & the guys) but in general this part is almost exclusively about Candy & Anthony’s relationship.
- Section II (pp. 229 till 349 (book 1) & pp. 3 til 146 (book2)) the first chapters of this section overlaps the healing process and closure over Anthony with Terry - until May 1913 (8 months after Anthony’s death)- but from there, we concentrate solo in Candy & Terry’s relationship.
- Section III (pp. 147 - including epilogue till p. 332 (book2)) tells about the healing and final closure over Terry in 1916, but in general this part is dedicated to William Albert (as Prince, as Albert, as Uncle William or as Anohito) and his romantic relationship with Candy the majority of letters in Section III are, directly or indirectly, related to WA. The key to understand the meaning of all these letters lies in what & when exactly Candy knows about him (eg. When she goes to Rocktown she is only searching for her flatmate “Albert”. When she replies to Eleanor's invitation she knows her flatmate is also her benefactor Uncle William. When she writes to Terry (and the last ones to Elroy, George, Archie), she knows he is also the prince & they are having a romantic relationship behind everyone else backs.)
Also the three main “love stories” follow almost identical steps;
1. Candy meets a new guy.
2. She doesn’t fall in love with him, because Candy is healing or there is a transition time, the new guy might help in the process.
3. She get “closure” from a previous relationship.
4. She falls in love with the new guy.
5. She enjoys a short period of happiness with the new guy.
6. At some point there will be a physical separation.
7. Unfortunately the relationship ends tragically.
8. Leaving Candy devastated once again.
This pattern translates into;
In the early spring of 1904 candy meets a prince in Pony’s hill. (1)
In late spring or summer 1911, she meets Anthony (1) (that looked just like the prince she meet 7 years ago) - she doesn’t fall in love with him immediately (2) but after some time something start flourish between then (4). They cannot be together as Candy is sent to Mexico (6). After Candy’s adoption in the summer of 1912, she starts a new life close to Anthony (5) probably in autumn of 1912 Anthony dies tragically (7), Candy is devastated (8) & she loses weight.
The 1st of January 1913, on her voyage to England, Candy meets Terry (1), they study together in a London boarding school, but she is not interested in Terry because she is still healing from Anthony (2). On May, during a horse riding with Terry; 8 months after his death, Candy finally says goodbye to Anthony (3). With help from Terry, Candy recovers and is finally happy (4) summer in Scotland (5). Unexpected, at their return to the school in London, they are framed and Terry abandons the school to protect Candy’s honor, Candy also leaves London shortly after him (is the end of 1913). In 1914, after long months and a eternal journey Candy is finally back at Pony’s home, where she decides to become a nurse, she learns that Terry is also an actor - a year has passed without seeing each other (6). During 1915 there will be several attempts for them to meet but all their efforts are in vain, until the winter of 1915, almost 2 year later they finally meet in New York where Candy puts an end to their relationship (7) because Terry must take care of Susanna, leaving Candy with a broken heart (8) she loses weight.
The prince/Albert/Sir William/ William A. Ardlay/Anohito is difficult to structure because he is several characters at once and at times he overrides himself; So, Candy meets the Prince in 1904 (1), they chat for a mere few minutes, and even when it will take her more than 15 years to find out his true identity, she doesn’t really forget about him, but she also doesn’t have anything real to grasp to - her memory of him is more of a romantic platonic idealistic one.
In the summer of 1911- she meets a wanderer by name Albert (1), they will meet once again in the spring of 1913 in London - by summer, Albert disappears and goes to Africa (6). Albert appears in Candy’s life once again at early spring of 1915 - he has amnesia - by summer, they start living together as brother & sister or patient & nurse - but there is no other kind of feelings between them at this moment (2). At her return from New York, Candy is in pieces, with the help from Albert she will start her second, long painful healing process that will cover most of 1916, eventually she would start leaving Terry’s memories behind (3) as she starts enjoying some happiness with Albert (5) but typical of him, once again, he disappear middle 1917 (6), Candy is devastated (8) and again she loses weight. Looking for Albert, she meets Terry, but instead of staying with him (3) she continues on her search for Albert (4).
In late spring or summer of 1918, - she finally meets Great-Uncle William (1) asking him to cancel her engagement with Neil, to her surprise, her benefactor was none else than Albert himself. Candy goes in a period of confusion (2) the guy she liked turned out to be her adopted father (letter/invitation from Eleanor). Almost a year later by early spring of 1919 William A. Ardlay tell her, that he is also the young teenager she met 15 years ago at the hilltop of Pony’s home. They start a personal intimate & secret relationship by post, in the meantime Candy who was long ago over her relationship with Terry, writes a closure letter (3), she finally let herself go for Albert/Prince/Grandpa (4) and enjoys some happiness with him (5) birthday party. At the end of 1919, W.A. leaves for a long trip (6) from 3 to 6 months, their communication by letters stop at some point as Candy only wants to “talk to him in person” so she waits in excitement for his return. When he is back, understanding the strong opposition of his very conservative family (never would allow him to marry her), as he cannot propose marriage, W.A. returns the diary back to her (7). Candy in a last attempt to heal, this is the third time she finds love to immediately lose it again, tries to get some closure writing a letter to Anthony (8).
10 years later, with the economic crash of 1929, the gap between rich and poor gets smaller, the social ladder collapse momentarily, as well as many of society rules, that finally became obsolete (however they still need their family consent to marry). More important is, that with the severe worldwide economic depression there is no much need for businessmen like William Albert. Candy & Prince/Albert/William A. Ardlay/Bert (aka Anohito (1) move to the U.K. where it is easier for them to get married than in the USA (4), they can finally start a life together (5) as man & wife.
======================== CHRONOLOGY ========================
The following is most likely the order of events in a chronological order, however, even after lot of thinking & care, some events could slightly vary - in its order, season or year. You should use this timeline with caution, and whenever possible always do your own cross-references with the novel.
- 1904 - March? Annie, age 6 is adopted. Candy also 6, meets a "prince" of 17 years at the top of Pony’s hill
- 1911 - 7 years later, Candy now 13, is taken in services by the Leagan - she meets Anthony, 14, Archie 14, Stear 16 and Albert of 24.
- 1912 - With just 14 years, Candy is adopted by Great-Uncle-William. By Autumn, Anthony of 15, dies, Candy is devastated. She returns to Pony’s home.
- 1913 - At the New Year’s Party, on her way to a boarding school in London, Candy meets Terry. In May, now with 15 years Candy gets her first kiss, and finally gets closure about Anthony’s death. Albert goes to Africa. The kids spend the summer in Scotland. In winter first Terry, followed shortly after by Candy leave school/London for the USA.
- 1914 - Candy after a long adventure returns to the United States (Pony’s home). The kids also leave the school in London before WWI starts this summer. Late this year Candy starts her studies in nursing and also learns of Terry becoming an actor.
- 1915 - Candy & Terry trying to be together but keep missing each other. Albert appears amnesic at the hospital, a few months later Candy and him start sharing an apartment. By the end of the year, Stear (of 21) enlisted himself in the army as a volunteer. Finally Terry & Candy meet, but he has to stay with Susanna, Candy returns to Chicago with a broken heart (she loses weight).
- 1916 - Candy receives a letter from Susanna. Albert now works but Candy gets fired. Albert has an accident, Candy is hired at the Happy Clinic of Chicago, Terry's acting declines. Albert regains memory. Stear died in the war. Funeral of Stear is held in Chicago.
- 1917 - Terry leaves Susanna & Broadway. Candy is starting to achieve some happiness living with Albert at their Chicago apartment. Albert disappears (Candy loses weight). Meanwhile searching for Albert, Candy sees Terry and talks to Eleanor in Rocktown. Terry returns to Susanna & to Broadway again.
- 1918 - Albert is still missing. Neil wants to marry Candy, she locates Uncle William in Lakewood. At some point rehearsals for the play Hamlet begins. May, engagement party Neil & Candy. Albert (now 30) is presented as Sir William. Candy moves back to Pony’s home. In Autumn, Candy receives an invitation from Eleanor to see Hamlet (minimum 1 year playing in U.S.A.) November the war ends. December - Stear’s Memorial Burial in Lakewood. Archie enrolls himself at the graduate school of Massachusetts. By Christmas, Candy writes to Dr. Martin about the new upcoming clinic.
- 1919 - January - It begins the construction of Pony’s home extension. March? Leagan’s party- opening of the Miami Resort Hotel. Albert presents himself to Candy as the “prince” - they start a secret correspondence. Candy writes to Archie. By April? Candy now works at the Happy Clinic located at Pony's Hill. (May) Annie & Candy’s birthday party in Chicago. Candy & Albert trying to be together but they don’t have time. End of Hamlet’s performance/Candy gets closure with Terry letter "I loved you" October? Albert is in San Paulo - Candy waits on his return to talk to him directly. November? Starts the opposition to the marriage Annie / Archie.
- 1920 - March? Candy writes to Aunt Elroy and later to Stear. May?/Spring engagement party Annie-Archie. Albert is back from traveling. Last romantic letter in the epilogue. Candy tries to get some closure from Albert writing a letter to Anthony.
- 1921 - Spring? Annie-Archie wedding.
- 1925? - Candy reads Susanna’s obituary/Susanna is dead.
- 1926? -Terry writes to Candy - he won't get a reply.
- 1929 - October, financial crash and beginning of the 10-year Great Depression that affected all Western industrialized countries.
- 1930? Candy just turning 30 moved with Anohito/him to the UK to marry - they live somewhere between Wales and the South-East of England during the European Interbellum. Anohito buys in a London flea market, a painting done by Slim about Pony’s home on a spring day, view from top of the hill’s down.
- 1932?- Novel’s present time; Lakewood is now for sale. Miss Pony is recovering. Today, is a spring day, Candy is writing back to Miss Pony & sister Maria, this triggers her to remember the relevant events in her life of the past 2 decades, meanwhile Anohito (Prince/Albert/William A. Ardlay/Bert) is out with the car for the day.
6. What is this novel really all about?
I am aware that what it comes now might be a deal-breaker to many, but I cannot write about Candy Candy without addressing what is probably the BIGGEST PUZZLE EVER in the whole Candy world; call me naive or ignorant - but less than a year ago I didn’t know anything about Albertfans, Terryfans or Pro-Anthony fans. I wasn’t aware of any rivalry between groups or taking sides based in male characters preferences always ready to argue, to defend, to battle (and in extreme cases to insult, to offend, to hate) … I am sure somewhere in Japan, Nagita herself is scratching her head wondering where all went wrong; when is that her lovable characters start to “despise” each other forcing fans around the world to take strongholds to protect Candy’s ONE & ONLY TRUE LOVE...
The only thing that comes to my mind is perhaps that scene from episode 112 “Their own love" (from the TV series) when Albert finds Terry very drunk at a bar in Chicago looking for Candy, when Albert approaches him, their argument ends in a fight (which Albert, being sober, wins without effort) but later in the same episode, they converse in a more calm manner, showing how fraternal they are to each other, worry both above all, only of Candy’s well-being. Terry just wanted to check Candy is doing alright (after their rupture in New York). Albert brings him to a hill, from where both men spy, meanwhile Candy works at the Happy Clinic- they witnessed how optimistic she is despite the hard turn of events in her life. Terry leaves Chicago choosing not to meet with her & returning to New York (to Susanna & to Broadway). Albert respects Terry’s wishes and never tells Candy about his encounter with him. However, this scene (together with many more, plus extra pets, characters & plots) are exclusive to the script of the TV series (by Toei Animation). In CCFS, Mizuki takes control over her work, and the new novel is closer to the manga or to the previous novel, than any of the animated works (TV series and movies). So, as a rule of thumb, try to forget as much as possible all you remember from the animation and read the manga or the 1978 novel instead, as in some cases you will have to fill-in plot holes from the new novel with extracts from the manga.
The novel CCFS narrates almost identical events to those in the manga - until the end of section II (when Candy leaves the school in London to go after Terry) roughly middle Vol. 04 or until chapter 32 (depending on the manga’s copy). But because section III is written in epistolary format, when reading the letters we might feel some scenes are now missing from the plot. For example, Susanna’s character is the one that benefits the most from this new format; her worst portrait is definitely in the anime. In CCFS - Susanna still has a very determinate role to play (without her person, there is no reason for Terry & Candy to end their relationship so drastically), but strangely enough her presence within the new novel is almost limited to a few paragraphs; we read about her for first time in (B2/P. 230-233) Annie's Letter to Candy - “It is that Susanna was seriously injured under a fallen light during a rehearsal. She is confined to a wheelchair all her life because of it. She dashed her entire body to Terry...... To protect him―――”, there is more about Susanna on Candy’s retrospective on her separation from Terry (B2/pp. 234-237) then, we have to jump further till (pp.274-277) Candy's Letter to Terry that she never sent, after that comes (pp. 278-280) Susanna's Letter to Candy and finally (P.281) Candy recalls reading Susanna's obituary - and this is all we are going to see about Susanna in the new novel. In the anime there will be whole episodes just about Susanna getting in-between Terry & Candy, but in CCFS this has been reduced to two mere sentences “I didn't want to be disturbed by Susanna anymore just like when I went over to the hotel in Chicago to see Terry during the tour of the United States. Susanna kicked me out, just like when Susanna stole my letters to Terry.” (so if you want to understand or remember what is Candy referring to in here, you’ll have to grab the manga and complete this scene by yourself) and if by any chance you are new to the storyline you might even think that Susanna is not the selfish wicked person (as portrayed in the anime), but a good hearted woman, brave and generous that sacrifice herself for the man she loves.
You should also be very careful how you fill-in the plot-holes in CCFS; some scenes are completely erased from the manga’s narrative - like Neil sexual harassing Candy or Albert saving her from a loose Lion in the Chicago park (thanks for that one - it makes him more close to a common human than to a superhero). Annie’s character also benefits with the new format, we see her at her worst in the anime, but in CCFS she is once again closer to the portrait of her that we have in the manga. In the down side Tom is almost gone from the plot, getting only a few mentions in the new novel and in the same way that Susanna is no so predominant in the novel, we won’t see Candy searching for Terry either - all those scenes get reduced to a few paragraphs “You have visited Pony’s Home right? At that time I was still a stowaway. I was told by the sisters afterwards… and how I regretted it. If only I arrived a little earlier…What if you came a little later… It was the same in Chicago… We always crossed each other’s paths without meeting. Back then I believed that the more we missed each other, fate will pay us back so we could have more time together.” (B2/pp.274-277). One scene that is in the novel from the manga’s storyline (and I never really understood why it was omitted in the amine) is Albert presenting himself to society at Candy & Neil’s engagement party (but you will also have to compose this one out, because its description is spread out across different pages; In the letter to Mary (B2/pp.203-204) - “you put a laxative in the tea that you served to Neil when he decided to marry me by force!”. In the letter to George (B2/pp. 208/214) “-- You disobeyed Granduncle’s orders for the first time … when I was forced to get engaged to Neil … With a deeply troubled look, you told me where he was. Lakewood … that place”. In the letter to Archie (B2/pp.256-259) “Albert and Uncle William.Even now, I still can’t believe that they are the same person. That time, you looked wide-eyed and pointed your finger at Albert and unable to speak!It was that time when you found out that Albert is Uncle William!You should’ve seen the look on your face! Archi--- do you remember how many times you have repeatedly asked? It was 9 times!!! Including the times you muttered to yourself.”
In general, I think the anime (I also imply the movies) are always easier to see (or to follow) requiring very little effort from us, the audience. The manga is a bit more of work (as you have to read it) but the illustrations from Igarashi makes the reading very entertaining, and she also helps with the expressions and the behavior of the characters - (you know that of, one picture is worth 1000 words). But it is the novel (like with any other kind of writing) where you have to work the most - to read, to concentrate, to imagine, to retain, but I personally think you are highly rewarded, because the conversation is more direct, more personal, more intimate and often you will feel that Candy (or Mizuki) is talking directly only to you and the story is unfolding for your eyes only - and this in itself (bounding with Candy & Mizuki) is a pretty special feeling. However even when Candy Candy might seem only a novel for teenagers, its real message is far much deeper & complex; I am convinced that Nagita (using Mizuki’s pseudonym) wrote it as art therapy (you just need to read her own biography to understand this) and here is when the script gets really intimate, a piece of herself - I am not implying that the novel is autobiographical, but yet, to me the main characters represent her (or anyone of us for that matter); Candy, Anthony, Terry or Albert don’t really exist, and I don’t mean this because they are Nagita’s pure imagination, but more because if we strip them of their physical human appearances (I know this might be a bit difficult at first, Igarashi created very sexy portrayals), but if we concentrate only in their essence, in what they really represent (without a face or a body attached to it), we might come to the conclusion that all the main characters are stereotype or prototype or clichés, in three distinctive phases of the human psyche.
In “My friend Candy” (bimonthly magazine 'Jidou-bungei', 1980). K Mizuki says: “I thought of Candy experiencing three kinds of love. A faint and fleeting first love for Anthony; passionate love for Terry; and a peaceful fateful love for Albert”.
I will go a bit much further and I would add that the three male characters also complement each other, you only see one at the time as he is presented in a different stage of development than the other two, but together the three male protagonist represent one single journey - the process of growing up or in other words, we need the three of them to see the full spectrum of candy’s milestones;
Anthony represents a transitional stage half child-half adolescent (and shows qualities from both sides, he is sweet, calm, gentle, lovely, but he is also strong, demanding, determine, detaching from the authority and finding his way in life)
Terry represents a teenager but in concentrate stage, showing in a extreme way everything that can go on in adolescence; rage, rebellious, courage, stupidity, impulsivity, hate, passionate, discomfort, insecurity, bravery, intelligence, immature, challenging, pushing, fighting... plus he drinks and smokes (I mean what else can you ask for?)
Albert is like a concentrate Zen master; he always knows what to say at the right moment – even when his own life is a mess- but he always presents himself in balance, calm, adult, mature, peaceful, wise, stable, strong, fair, fateful, he is so perfect… that sometimes might come out as boring and less of a challenge because he already evolved.
And then, there is Candy or the female character that would represent “life” (or those events that happens to all of us during our lives especially during those three stages (puberty, adolescence and adulthood); our first kiss, our reactions to death, our first job, friends, to overcome disappointments, grieving, falling in love or even having a broken heart. laughs & tears, the ying & the yang of life.and here is where I can push the metaphor even further; for me the underlying message of Candy Candy story has very little to do with romance, and if there is any love story at all it should be the love to oneself. I understand that the true meaning of CC is a personal journey from childhood till adulthood across the different physical stages of human development, meaning the three male characters (Anthony= Puberty, Terry = Adolescent, Albert=Adulthood) are stages or station that life (Candy) needs to experience and to go through. But these are not the only stages, following the continuous succession of events the different characters represent key steps in the human development, one after the other one, in life’s continuous motion.
Life begins (or Candy is born) - first stages are neonate or newborn (first 3 months of life). From 1 till 3 years old is toddler stage (both stages are part of infancy) that in the book are explained or shared with the adventures of Annie & Tom. -
In the moment Annie leaves the orphan home, 6 years old - Candy meets the Prince (that I understand represents an imaginary friend). This is like the end of a stage and beginning of new one. Annie (Infancy) leaves and imaginary friends (the prince) comes now into the plot (65% of children would make imaginary friends during childhood, hardly any of them would keep this friend in their life passing adulthood - guess what? Candy would also find out the prince identity before adulthood stage - in other words the imaginary friends disappears once life enter the adulthood stage).
The transition between childhood into adolescence is represented by Candy (life) leaving pony’s home (or the childhood stage) to move (momentarily) into the Leagan home = this is a stage with a lot of stress, anxiety and physical development; developing the genitals, like growing breast, or pubic hair, acne or other hormonal changes might also occur.
But the biggest change is yet to come, the first menarche, and in some cases this might also be a traumatic experience. JM. Tanner wrote in his article “the secular trend” that the first menstrual period (in North America) has decreased by about 3 years over the past 100 years (our great-grandmothers, same as Candy would have the menarche at average age 14, when now the average is set at 11 years) - In many cultures, the menarche is the end of the girl and marks the beginning of the womanhood, many females across the world are forced to leave schools for a marriage life after their first period. Anthony representing the puberty stage (half child/half teenager) dies, but I don’t think his death necessarily needs to be a physical one, but more of a symbolic one, like the death of a stage, the death of the childhood. Yes, you are reading right, I believe Anthony’s death is a metaphor for Menarche.
As Candy leaves slowly, behind her childhood/puberty (anthony’s death) to enter fully into the rest of her adolescent stage, represented by Terry. At 15, Candy receives her first kiss from Terry, a believe this also a metaphor of life’s sexual awareness, the stage in any adolescent where sexual exploration begins (hormones, libido) - here is represented by a kiss, but it could also include, oral sex, masturbation and so on.
At 17, because of Susanna, Candy has a broken heart; in reality, here, both Candy & Susanna represent the same feelings - they are not contraries and enemies but complementary to each other, one has sorrow the other one is sad, one has hopes the other one is optimistic. I believe they represent the same feeling- the loss of innocence; is that moment when you realize that life is not pink (you’ve already left childhood behind, you’ve already become a woman (physically), but you might still be innocence) - the loss of innocence it is a huge disappointment that might develop into a severe depression (thought of suicide in extreme cases), or indeed symbolize a broken heart or maybe even the first sexual intercourse (lost of virginity/lost of innocence).
There are 3 direct references to suicide in the works; Susanna attempted to jump off a building (so she wouldn’t interfere between Terry & Candy). Stear going (volunteer) to war & dying (consider as a suicide in the novel). Patty trying to harm herself with a butter-knife (after Stear’s funeral), plus the mention to other characters, which fate was also resolved with suicide (Cleopatra, Hamlet, Romeo & Juliet). Suicide is relatively rare among children, however the rate of suicides and suicide attempts increases tremendously during adolescence;
- Children ages 10 to 14 — 0.9 per 100,000 children
- Adolescents ages 15 to 19 — 6.9 per 100,000 adolescent
- Young adults ages 20 to 24 — 12.7 per 100,000 young adults
When she is roughly 18, (Stear who was 22 dies), but the same as with Anthony’s death I don’t think this is a physical death as such, but to me would come to represent more the end of adolescence stage, because we are finally entering the adult stage (personify by Albert).
At 19, Candy is all alone (Anthony, Terry are left behind & Albert is also missing), is a sad moment (she is scared) but she is finally independent, walking on her own feet; she is working, she is living on her own, she is finally becoming an independent adult. The identity of the Prince is revealed, so she also leave him (the invisible friend that accompany her for so many year) behind at the age of 21. But as “there are no goodbyes between them” Albert is always present in Candy’s life (or life finally reached adulthood stage).
It is inevitable that Candy (life) ends-up with WA/Anohito (Adulthood), you want her to live long and to the max of her capacity, if Candy would stay with Anthony - she wouldn’t evolve past puberty (meaning life would die in her pre-teens). The same goes if she stayed with Terry, meaning life wouldn’t continue after the adolescent stage. Following this metaphor, you can be sure, you also passed through an Anthony stage, you went through a Terry stage, and most likely you are now in your Anohito stage (mature, balance, wise), because the book is a metaphor about human stages, doesn’t mean that everything affected you the same way, or that you went through the same experiences as her.
But, when remembering Candy Candy, try not to think only about the romantic horse ride with Anthony, the savage kiss from Terry or Albert welcoming arms, if you are going to take something at all from this novel, more than anything else it should be one word (or one attitude) RESILIENCE - the ability you need in life to bounce back... life is going to knock you down - so, cry... grieve... now... stand up and keep on going... your life is not over until the day you die, and just in case you haven’t realize be sure that THE ONLY PERSON WHO IS GOING TO BE WITH YOU FOR THE REST OF YOUR LIFE IS YOURSELF.
So, what is this work really about? This book is about Nagita’s personal journey, this book is about my life, this book is about you... about the first memory you have.. going to pick-up your sister from school.. walking with your mother to the market.. waking in your bed with the first rays of dawn, raindrops in your face, you crushed a snail, you enjoy the sunsets, stealing fruit in the summer, the first time you saw the snow, the smell of your mother’s beef stew invading the whole house, walking barefoot on the grass, you learnt to bike, you slap your sister, you learn to swim, your skirt broke and you almost got naked in public - (this is the worst day of your life) your sister hates you, you’ve got your first period (this is definitely the worst day of your life), Xmas at our grandparents is always the best time of the year, you’ve got your first kiss (this is the best day of your life), you are in love, you are stalking a guy, you don’t know why but your sister isn’t talking to you. A guy is stalking you. First time you travel abroad. You swear, no matter what, you are never going to be like your mother. You’ve lost your virginity- you are in love (again), he dumps you for another woman, you are heartbroken, you lose 10 kilos and your boobs shrink. You graduate from university - you can be proud. Your grandmother dies but you can’t make it to the funeral. You get your first job - how much money are you making? - It feels like being a millionaire- you don’t know how, but your sister is now talking to you. Your cousin's wedding is the best party ever. You found out that your favorite aunt abused your sick-old grandmother and forced her to change her Will just before dying (shock disappointment). You move to another country, you can’t believe the taxes you are paying, you meet a nice guy it might be love (again), you moved-in together. IKEA is the best shop. You have sex in an open-forest area. The tax office gives you money back. You have a miscarriage, you get fired, Your sister asked you to be the godmother of her child. You’ve get a better job. You’ve got married. For over 9 months you cannot sleep (you hate being pregnant) hope is over soon, you plant a tree in the garden, you cannot believe this is the day you deliver a child, you hold in your arms the most pure of all creatures - you wish your grandmother could see your baby. 1 year later you still cannot sleep, you changed your work suit for trainers, your pc job for diapers and the smell of channel n5 for sour milk vomit (and you look like your mother). Your baby walks to you for the first time. you still can’t lose those 10 kilos from the pregnancy. Your baby first word is “mumma”. You have to pay a huge amount of money back to tax office and you are sure this is a government conspiracy and you’ll fight then. Your kid is so much like you when you were young & you are turning into your mother. You re-discover Candy Candy (It’s only for your daughter to see it). Your father dies of a heart attack… your child is the only thing it keeps you going on in the mornings, you stop believing in God. Your kid goes first day to school, you can be proud, you go back to work. You leave the Candy Candy world - (you couldn’t bother with all the fuss is going on). Your husband gets a promotion and you move to another country, you are busy re-designing the new home. You are diagnostic with cervical cancer, they empty-clean your uterus, you are now officially in menopause. Every Christmas you go to the ballet with your son & at summer to the rock festival with your daughter. Your mother dies, you feel sad you never really understood her. You take the cross country hike to Santiago during 3 weeks, it bounds you with your sister. Your son has a new girlfriend every month and your daughter is gay. Your husband finally retires. You have sex (again) in an open forest. Your husband is sick; the doctors don’t know what is wrong. You travel around the world for 6 months. Your husband is in lots of pain. The man you shared your life with for more than 30 years dies, you lie flat, you don’t eat or sleep for over a month & no one would ever understand how you are feeling. Your last child leaves home, you are all alone, and you were not alone since... you were never alone before. You get a lovely cat. You hold in your arms your first grandchild - a miracle of life, the next generation - you wish your husband was alive to share this moment with you. You receive a letter from a childhood love - it makes you giggle. You have a fight with your daughter, she doesn’t like your love- relationship with this man, you wish she was more supportive. Your cat dies, you get a lovely dog. Your lovely dog eats the only picture you had with your grandfather. You travel to the Arctic with your son to see the northern lights, it is breathtaking. You go back to do yoga & start your days with a Sun-salutation. You inherit from your mother some farmland and an old barn, you move back to your ancestors place and wonder why you ever left this place. You go skydiving with your best friend. You pretend you don’t know your son is stealing money from you. Your grandchild tells you that your Christmas reunions are the best. You finally understand your mother. You convert the old barn in your studio and you become obsessed trying to paint the sunsets from your childhood. You believe in some God again. Your sisters divorces once more and moves in with you and your dog. You teach your grandchild your grandmother’s secret rice pudding recipe; she is amazing and makes you proud, you give her the pearl necklace that your husband bought many years ago (it looks better on her anyway)… You are cold and tired, you open your eyes briefly your daughter is there and so is your son and your grandchildren, your daughter holds your hand, it is warm and relaxes you, you want to sleep, it is all right, let it go, there is only one way, close your eyes, sleep, rest, this is the way it has to be. .